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低蛋白配方和粗麦麸替代氧化锌在保育猪日粮中的应用

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时间2021-03-29
       开展两个试验研究不同蛋白水平日粮中添加粗麦麸在有无高剂量氧化锌情况下对保育猪生长性能和粪便干物质的影响。

       试验一,选用360头去势公猪(品系200×400,DNA, Columbus, NE, 初重5.6kg),随机分至6个日粮处理,每个处理12圈,每圈5头,试验期为断奶后第0-21天。试验处理包括:1、正对照(21%粗蛋白,前期3kg/t氧化锌,后期2kg/t氧化锌);2、负对照(21%粗蛋白,110ppm锌);3-6号日粮粗蛋白分别为21%、19.5%、18%、16.5%,日粮中添加4%粗麦麸和110ppm锌。1-3号日粮SID赖氨酸含量为1.40%(前期)、1.35%(后期);4-6号日粮分别含SID赖氨酸1.33%、1.25%、1.20%。与负对照组和21%蛋白日粮相比,正对照组日增重和肉料比显著提高(P<0.05)。日粮粗蛋白(赖氨酸)的减少显著降低日增重和肉料比(线性,P=0.002),但是粪便干物质显著提高(线性,P=0.005)。

       试验二,选用300、350头猪各一批,初重分别为7.0kg和6.2kg,每个处理26圈,每圈5头。试验目的在于研究低蛋白日粮中添加合成氨基酸是否可以改善生长性能。试验期共13天,所有日粮添加4%粗麦麸。试验处理包括:1、正对照组,21%粗蛋白,1.35%SID赖氨酸,2kg/t氧化锌;2、21%粗蛋白,无氧化锌;3、无氧化锌,18%粗蛋白,1.2%SID赖氨酸;4、无氧化锌,18%粗蛋白,1.35%SID赖氨酸;5、在日粮4基础上添加非必需氨基酸(甘氨酸和谷氨酸)。与18%粗蛋白(1.35%)日粮组和低SID赖氨酸(1.2%)日粮组相比,21%蛋白+氧化锌组日增重显著提高(P=0.001)。与1.2%SID赖氨酸组和低蛋白高赖氨酸组相比,21%粗蛋白组和额外添加非必需氨基酸组猪只的肉料比显著改善(P<0.001)。低SID赖氨酸组猪只粪便中干物质含量显著提高。

      总之,高剂量氧化锌显著改善仔猪生长性能,降低日粮蛋白(以及SID赖氨酸)降低保育猪生长性能。


Effects of feeding diets containing low crude protein and coarse wheat bran as alternatives to zinc oxide in nursery pig diets
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of crude protein (CP) level in diets containing coarse wheat bran (CWB) with or without pharmacological levels of Zn (provided by zinc oxide: ZnO) on growth performance and fecal DM of nursery pigs. In experiment 1, 360 barrows (Line 200 × 400, DNA, Columbus, NE, initially 5.6 kg) were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments from d 0 to 21 after weaning with 5 pigs per pen and 12 pens per treatment. Treatments included a positive control diet (21% CP) with 3,000 mg/kg Zn in phase 1 and 2,000 mg/kg in phase 2; negative control (21% CP) with 110 mg/kg added Zn, and 4 diets containing 4% CWB and 110 mg/kg added Zn formulated to contain 21%, 19.5%, 18%, or 16.5% CP. The 2 control diets and 21% CP CWB diet contained 1.40% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys in phase 1 and 1.35% SID Lys in phase 2, while the 19.5%, 18%, and 16.5% CP diets contained 1.33, 1.25 and 1.20% Lys, respectively, in both phases. Pigs fed the positive control diet containing pharmacological ZnO had increased (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F compared with the negative control and the 21% CP CWB diet. Reducing CP (concurrently with SID Lys) in diets containing CWB decreased ADG and G:F (linear, P = 0.002); however, fecal DM increased (linear, P = 0.005). In experiment 2, two groups of 300 and 350 pigs, initially 7.0 and 6.2 kg, respectively, were used with 5 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. The objective was to determine if adding back essential AA would improve growth performance of pigs fed the low CP diets. All dietary treatments were fed for 13 days, contained 4% CWB, and consisted of: (1) positive control with 2,000 mg/kg of Zn and 21% CP (1.35% SID Lys); (2) no ZnO and 21% CP; and 3 diets with no ZnO formulated to 18% CP and (3) 1.2% SID Lys; (4) 1.35% SID Lys by the addition of feed grade amino acids (AA), and (5) diet 4 with non-essential amino acids (NEAA; Gly and Glu). Pigs fed 21% CP with ZnO had increased (P = 0.001) ADG compared to those fed 18% CP (1.35% SID Lys) with high levels of feed grade amino acids or those fed the reduced SID Lys (1.2%) diet. Overall, G:F was improved (P < 0.001) for pigs fed 21% CP diets and those fed the 18% CP diet with NEAA compared to pigs fed 1.2% SID Lys and pigs fed high levels of feed grade amino acids. Fecal DM was increased for pigs fed the reduced SID Lys diet. In summary, pharmacological levels of Zn improve pig growth performance, but reducing CP (and subsequently SID Lys) decreased nursery pig growth performance.

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